ISSN: 2822-0838 Online

Chlorine and Chlorinated Compounds Removal from Industrial Wastewater Discharges: A Review

Mohammad Al-Hwaiti, Hamidi Abdul Aziz*, Mohd Azmier Ahmad, and Reyad Al-Shawabkeh
Published Date : 2021-04-01
Journal Issues : Number 3, July-September 2021

Abstract Adsorption techniques for industrial wastewater treatment  rich in heavy metals and aqueous solutions of water-soluble such as Cl, F, HCO3, NO3, SO24, and PO3, often include technologies for toxicity removals. The recent advancement and technical applicability in the treatment of chlorine and chlorinated compounds from industrial wastewater are reviewed in this article. Chlorine and chlorinated compounds are among the common discharged constituents from numerous industries. They can be carcinogenic or naturally toxic and can pose issues to aquatic ecosystems and human beings. Thus, elimination of chlorides and chlorinated compounds from water or wastewater is inevitable to get rid of the problem. Several techniques are being applied for the reduction of chlorine and chlorinated compounds in water. These include biodegradation, photochemical, adsorption, chemical, electrochemical, photo-electrochemical, membrane, supercritical extraction and catalytic method. Chlorine can react with various organic and inorganic micro-pollutants. However, the potential reactivity of chlorine for specific compounds is small, and only minor variations in the structure of the parent compound are anticipated in the water treatment process under typical conditions. This paper reviews different techniques and aspects related to chlorine removal, the types of chlorine species in solution and their catalyst, chlorine fate and transport into the environment, electrochemical techniques for de-chlorination of water, kinetics, mechanisms of reduction of chlorinated compounds, and kinetics of the electrochemical reaction of chlorine compounds.


Keywords: Industrial waste, Kinetics, Wastewater, Water purification


Citation: Al-Hwaiti, M., Aziz, H.A., Mohd Azmier Ahmad, M.A., and Al-Shawabkeh, R. 2021.Chlorine and chlorinated compounds removal from industrial wastewater discharges: A review. CMUJ. Nat. Sci. 20(3): e2021047.


Enormous industrial effluent pollutants contaminated wastewater, bearing heavy metals and aqueous solutions of water-soluble, such as Cl-, F, HCO3−, NO3, SO24, and PO34, may be entered and accumulated in the food chain and then human body, therefore, they can cause serious health disorders as well as unsuitable for human consumption or irrigation (Tilley et al. 2016; Xiong et al. 2019; Eunice et al., 2020). Chlorinated compounds, for example, have an adverse effect on human and animals. Agency for Toxic substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, 2019) listed these compounds among the top 20 substances that need urgent remediation. Human consumption of chlorinated water results in several organs cancer such as the bladder, kidney, and rectal (Mahvi, et al. 2009; Ghoochani et al., 2017). Also, they affect reproduction outcome.


The treatment of certain industrial mine wastewater rich in soluble chloride salts leads to increased chlorine concentrations as well as an enrichment of undesirable elements such as F, Ca2+, HCO3, NO3, SO24, and PO34 and certain heavy metals (Al-Hwaiti et al. 2015; Al-Hwaiti et al. 2016; Al-Hwaiti et al. 2018; Masixole et al. 2019). The conventional treatment processes have a significant faced problem due to incomplete removal anion or metal from inorganic effluent mine wastewater (Eccles, 1999). These treatment techniques are chemical precipitation, ion exchange, and electrochemical.


Nowadays, the adsorption technique can be applied for wastewater treatment in order to improve mine water effluent. However, this technique has shown significant advantage, which includes low-cost treatment, and high efficiency and convenient operation (Flávia et al., 2018). Kurniawan et al. (2005) reported that most solid adsorbents such as industrial wastes, zeolites, biomass materials, agricultural wastes, and polymeric materials might be used for the reduction of inorganic effluent mine water. Among various water and wastewater treatment technologies, process techniques including physicochemical treatment techniques for wastewater (Solimana and Moustafa, 2020), electrodialytic process by various fly ashes for treating heavy metals (Pedersen et al., 2003), photocatalytic (Skubal et al., 2002), coagulation- flocculation process (Hakizimana et al., 2017; Emad et al., 2020), water and wastewater treatment by flotation(George et al., 2018), biological filtration process (Shuokr et al., 2016), ion exchange process for wastewater treatment (Nirali et al. 2016), biodegradable processes of sewage by an aerobic and anaerobic process (Anijiofor et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2020), water and wastewater purification using photochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes (Marta and Natalia, 2010), solvent extraction and adsorption for wastewater effluent (Aswathy et al. 2016), water treatment and purification by adsorption processes(Adrián et al. 2017; Alshammari et al., 2020), electrolytic treatment of wastewater (Vinod Kumar, 2017; Jannatul et al., 2020), activated microbial sludge treatment for wastewater (Yongkui, 2020), chemical reduction of chlorinated organic compounds (Rodrigues et al., 2020), a catalyzed by laccase in aqueous solution (Asadgol et al., 2014); green synthesis iron oxide nanoparticles (Ehrampoush et al., 2015); Magnetic heterogeneous catalytic ozonation (Shahamat et al. 2014); ultrasound waves and ultraviolet irradiation; carbon nanotubes: kinetic and equilibrium studie (Mahvi et al., 2009); magnetic adsorption separation process (Dehghani et al. 2015); electro-coagulation process using iron and aluminum electrodes (Azari et al. 2017).


Recent research reviewed by (Adeola, 2018), suggests that chloride and other compounds released from industrial waste effluent are harmful to aquatic ecosystems and human health. This is because they form a stable compound, especially when they linked to alkali and alkali earth elements such as Na, K, Ca and Mg (Malcolm et al. 2017).

Although numerous reports showed that chloride enriched in municipal wastes and other industrial activities might be increased the chloride content in fresh and wastewater (Sarzamin and Jawad, 2018). Vít and Petr (2019) have investigated different chlorine species initiated in saline solution such as hypochlorites HOCl/OCl¯, chlorites ClO2-, chlorates ClO3-, chlorine dioxide ClO2. Chlorine is among the highest commonly applied disinfectants in water purification; therefore, chlorine can be applied in gas form or in solution as sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite to remove or reduce microorganism in water treatment (Enric et al., 2015). Chlorine species have subjected under regulation to low allowable concentration levels. The ion ClO2- (chlorite) comes from the decomposition  of ClO2, being the most common DBP from ClO2. Current research reports indicate that chloride mostly flows into wastewater treatment facilities from industry effluents. According to Scott et al. (2018), there are three softening processes such as scrutinized, reverse-osmosis, and lime softening are used for treating chloride at Wastewater Treatment Plants. György et al. (2018) Deborde and Von Gunten (2008) have used kinetics and mechanisms process in order to examine chlorine interactions in organic and inorganic mixtures. The results revealed that possible pathways of reaction are electrophilic substitution reactions with organic compounds.


The effects of structural and thermodynamic on process kinetics are adopted by Wolfgang et al. (2016). They used the Butler-Volmer equation for the reduction of chlorinated species reaction rate constant by mass transfer. The main objective of this paper is reviewing chloride and chlorinated compounds removal from water and wastewater, with emphasized on the reactivity kinetic and mechanisms on chloride and chlorinated compounds through water and wastewater effluent.


Types of chlorine species in solution and their catalyst

The aqueous chemistry of chlorine with respect to chlorination of water and wastewater has been reviewed by several investigators (Abarnou and Miosse, 1992; EPA, 2013; Cristina et al., 2012). The following review summarizes the chemistry of chlorine relevant to the discharge of chlorinated waters and wastewaters to the environment. Thorben et al. (2019) used the cathodic electrode processes included in metallic corrosion in chlorinated saline seawater for reduction of chlorine species in the chlorinated water system. Adna et al. (2017) and Wang et al. (2018) reported that chlorinated species have controlled by reactant concentrations, pH, temperature, reaction rates and equilibria. Bromide and iodide, if present even at low concentrations, are oxidized by chlorine forming oxidation products such as hypobromous acid (HOBr) and iodine (I2). Hypobromous acid may, in turn, react with ammonia,  if present, to form bromamines analogous to chloramines. Bromine and iodine-containing oxidants become increasingly significant with increasing bromide and iodide concentrations in estuarine and marine waters (Guanghui et al. 2006). Although generally of little consequence in waters at near-neutral pH values, molecular chlorine and nitrogen trichloride are also usually analyzed as free chlorine. Thus, chlorine has a higher oxidation potential than chlorine compounds such as (NH2Cl), (NHCl2), Nitrogen trichloride (NCl3), and other organic compounds. Hypobromous acid and hypoiodous acid are distinguished by the usual analytical methods as free chlorine. HOBr reacts with ammonia to produce bromamines that are also detected as free chlorine. Thus the terminologies “free oxidant” and “combined oxidant” are more apt than free chlorine and combined chlorine when solutions containing bromide or iodide (e.g., seawater) are the subject of analysis. Nonetheless, present analytical approaches may not differentiate between free and combined bromine species. EU (2017) classified chlorine into different forms, such as chlorine gas, calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite. Table 1 shows the oxidation state of various inorganic oxidized forms of chloride and their stability in water.


Table 1. The oxidation state, free energy and stability of chloride forms in water.


Daniel and Vallero (2019) have reported that in the gas phase, Vinyl chloride gas may be absorbed into particles rather than into the aerosol phase as the particle phase is expected to be relatively small. Most delicate of chlorine is main source cause of toxicity, with a mean critical acute concentration (LC50) of about 2,500 mg / L and a mean critical chronic concentration (IC25) of around 720 mg/L. Chloride levels may always be required to verify whether chloride is toxic in the wastewater effluent (William et al., 2000; Mount et al., 1997).


Chlorine fate and transport into the environment

Several investigators have reported the ecological fate of chlorine in water are understood, and it not remain in the environmental system for a long time (Truhlar et al. 2006; Zheng et al., 2015; Cotton et al., 1999). Researchers have indicated that chlorine photolysis is naturally present in seawater through fate and transport of aerosols (Knipping and Dabdub, 2003; Saeed et al., 2015; Amy et al., 2017). When the chlorine gas reacts with water, it is immediately changed into different forms such as hypochlorous acid, chloride ion, and hypochlorite; however, hypochlorite is formed when pH falls below 4 (Farr et al., 2003). Furthermore, chlorine also occurs mostly as the chloride anion (Cl‾), and then Cl‾can fate and transport into the soil through water flows. The fate of chlorite stabilities and persistent or non-persistent in the aquatic environment is indicated in several literature sources (Table 2).


Table 2. The literature reviewed for chlorate (ClO3-) stability in the aquatic environment.


The study made by Zoeteman (1980) assessed the level of NaCl and CaCl2 concentrated in water ranged between 200–300 mg/L. The study revealed that chloride ion showed high mobility moved into water bodies, this is due to intensive weathering process for rocks rich chlorides content, and then chloride leached into the soil. Hu et al. (2013) determined the transfer of Cl- from the soil to other ecosystem is controlled by several complex processes such as hydrogeochemical process, besides that, contaminated soil by Cl- can be a significant source for the groundwater contamination, subsurface soil gas, atmospheric air, surface water, and sediments (Lu, 2010).

The fate of contaminants introduced into the environment by chlorine compounds is the result of various chemical industries and pharmaceutical industry activities discharged (Michałowicz and Duda, 2007; Mahendran et al. 2015; Atashgahi et al., 2018). reported that chlorophenols have a serious challenge in human healths. The transformation and fate of chlorophenols compounds may lead to increase toxicity or carcinogenic, damage gene products or DNA (Michałowicz and Duda, 2007; Etinosa et al. 2013). However, these chlorophenols fates adsorption in soils is governed by acidic conditions (pH) and vice versa. Chlorophenols have long been known released from industrial waste and landfills into surface water or atmosphere through volatilization (Adeola, 2018; Philip et al., 2001). Chlorophenols fates and transports to the environment are influenced by several processes such as chemical, physical, biological transformations, volatilization, sorption, degradation, and leaching (Schummer et al., 2006). Federica et al. (2015) stated that chlorinated solvents have faced several problems in terms of fate and transport these chemicals into the environment. In the pure chemical state, most chlorinated solvent mixtures having densities greater than water, and aren’t speciation into cations and anions in aqueous solution but dissolve as neutral species. Phenol is considered to be one of the organic industrial effluents that release water from various organic chemical industries. The general specifications of different industrial organic industrial effluent waters are described in (Table 3).


Table 3. The parameter of organic industrial effluent water.



Technologies used for de-chlorination of water

Several techniques are used for treating chlorinated compounds from water. These include biodegradation (Baskaran and Rajamanickam, 2019; Frascari et al., 2019; Khan et al., 2019; Papazi et al., 2019; Pathiraja et al., 2019; Nivorlis et al., 2019; Serbent et al., 2019), photochemical (Liu et al., 2020; Ding et al., 2020; Li et al., 2019), adsorption (Dontriros et al., 2020; Du et al., 2020; Liang et al., 2020; Lo et al., 2020; Qian et al., 2020), chemical (Kim et al., 2020; Qian et al., 2020; Song et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2020), electrochemical (Du et al., 2020; McQuillan et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2020; Xu et al., 2020), photo-electrochemical (Liu et al., 2020) membrane (Abdel-Shafy et al., 2017; Du et al., 2020; Vlotman et al., 2019; Wan et al., 2020), supercritical extraction (Zhang and Zhang, 2020), electron selectivity (Wang et al., 2020), neural network modeling ( Baskaran et al., 2019), and catalytic (Nieto-Sandoval et al., 2019; Ruan et al., 2019; Zheng et al., 2020) method. Related literature on the electrolytic treatment methods application for different types of wastewater is shown in Table 4.


Chlorinated compounds are readily degraded using several bioactive species from several strains such as Pseudomonas guguanensis, Desulfomonile tiedjei, Methylobacterium, Methylophilus, Hyphomicrobium, Nitrosomonas europea, Pseudomonas cepacia, Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes denitrificans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. The role of these strains is divided into two categories; co-metabolic conversions or conversions. The chlorinated hydrocarbons have a major carbon source to these strains where they act as electron acceptors in the respiratory process insolutions lack of oxygen. For example, trichloroethylene  is readily degraded to CO2 and lighter hydrocarbons using Pseudomonas guguanensis at a rate of degradation of 0.41 mg/L.h with 90% of removal efficiency (Han and Yan, 2016; Quan et al., 2017). Several methods are used for the degradation of trichloroethylene from aqueous water such as groundwater. These include dehalococcoides-containing microbial communities, polyethyleneimine-modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles, bysonophotolytic-activated persulfate processes, and polyethyleneimine-modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Mao et al., 2017; Lin et al., 2018; Bahrami et al., 2018; Mdlovu et al., 2019).


Table 4. Different electrolytic treatment methods using various types of wastewater.


Table 4. Continued.



Pesticides such as DDT, DDE, Endrin and Lindane were totally diminished using P. cepacia at low concentration (0.05 ppm) and after 24 h exposure.


Zero-valent iron is used in chemical, photo-electrochemical and catalyst degradation of chlorinated compounds in the adsorption and degradation of chlorinated acid, where this rate decreases with increasing solution acidity (Mdlovu et al. 2018; Kim et al., 2020; Qian et al., 2020; Song et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2020). Furthermore, Pd/Al2O3  catalyst was used to remove chlorinated micropollutants from the water with a reduction rate constants 0.32–1.56 L/g.min(Nieto-Sandoval et al. 2019). Also, Pd/CeO2 catalysts were applied to  degrade bromochloroacetic acid from the liquid phase through the hydrogenation process (Zheng et al., 2020). Furthermore, 2,4- dichlorophenol can be de-chlorinated using by Fe/Ni nanoparticles (Ruan et al., 2019). Photocatalytic and electrochemical methods were also adopted to catalyze chlorinated compounds to produce less harmful products such as carbon dioxide. Several photo-catalyst  such as C3N4/NiO are used to degrade 70.4% of 2-chlorodibenzo- p-dioxin in the presence UV–vis light illumination (Ding et al., 2020). Also, tungsten oxides nano-film anode is used for chlorinated compounds. The removal efficiency of 4- chlorophenol is 85.5%, and 48% is obtained with tungsten photoanode electrochemical (Liu et al., 2020). The biocharcoal-based electrode is also used to achieve 86.7% removal rates of Cl− from leather processing wastewater (Kim et al., 2020). Different carbon- supported  iron was used for removal of chloramphenicol (Stryer 1988). Pd-TiOcatalyst is used as electrocatalyst for hydrodechlorination reaction for 2,4- dichlorophenol (Wang et al., 2020).


Mining wastewater treatment with a focus on a natural substrate or sorbent adsorption can be used to remove contaminants such as heavy metals and chlorinated compounds. A description of the most adsorption for mining wastewaters treatment is shown in Table 5.


Table 5. Adsorption process for mining wastewaters treatment


The effect of support of these catalysts is investigated by studying the adsorption effect of several adsorbents on the uptake of these  compounds. A CuOx/Na2CO3 porous sorbent is used to remove HCl from CO2- rich mixture gases. The results show that 400,000 m3/h of hydrochloric acid can be removed from flue gas using 500 tons sorbents (Marschner, 1995). Chloro-organic in synthetic and site groundwater was successfully remediated by Palladium/Fe nanoparticle integrated membranes (Wan et al., 2020). Immobilized clostridium butyricum in silica gel is also employed for de- chlorination of trichloroethene (Lo et al., 2020).


Electrochemical Techniques for de-chlorination of water
Different electrochemical techniques were used in electro redox reaction of chlorinated compounds (García-Armada, 1996; Fritz et al., 2013; Eduardo et al., 2014). Electrochemical method type Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) is used to measure the current adsorbed to an electrode in an electrochemical cell under conditions and to measure the current produced. The electrochemical potential is scanned linearly from initial to a final value, and the corresponding current is measured (Joshi and Sutrave, 2018). The measure upper and lower peaks of the current-potential curve represent the redox reaction of the existing species in solution. This technique is useful to provide information about thermodynamic and kinetics of the redox reactions (Florica, 2014). This technique was used for de-chlorination in solution depends on different types of electrodes where the optimum condition for its electrochemical behaviour is monitored at pH 8. When boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are used, the chloride ions exists for the anodic reaction as ClO‾ (Michio et al., 2008). The coupled amperometric technique was employed to estimate chlorine concentration at a low concentration of 0.1-2 mg/L.


Linear sweep voltammetry technique was used graphite electrodes in order to determine chlorine concentrations with a range between (1.0-300.0 mg/dm3), and ClO- concentration less than (3) (Pathiratne et al., 2008). The differential pulse voltammetric technique was used as a gold electrode to determine chlorine concentration ranged between 1 and 5 mg Cl/dm3 (Sulistyo et al., 2010). The voltammetric potential sweep technique was also used different electrodes (e.g. platinum, gold, and glassy carbon disk) to measure chlorine concentration with a range of about 4-400mgCl/L, whereas a sensitivity concentration is 1.0mgCl/L (Fumihiro et al., 2005). Fumihiro et al. (2004) used Pt for electrode linear sweep-voltammetry in order to determine the hypochlorite ion. They also investigated physical, chemical factors, pH, temperature, sweep rate, dissolved oxygen and metal might be controlled electrochemical reaction. Cyclic voltammetry technique was used a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) to determine Polyvinyl chloride stability (Melih et al., 2019). The differential pulse polarography (DDP) technique was used to determine the electrochemical reduction of chlorite. The reaction condition investigated that concentrations of chlorite ranged from 19 μg/L-19 mg/L, pH ranged from 3.7 to 14, ionic strength range from 0.05–3.0 M (Nakareseisoon et al., 1988).


Mechanisms of reduction of chlorinated compounds

The most common reaction pathways for the electrochemical reaction of halogen ions and their compounds in aqueous solution and at the surface of electrodes are proposed by many researchers (Kraft, 2008; Radjenovic and Sedlak, 2015; Katsaounis and Souentie, 2014; Exner et al., 2016; Exner et al., 2018). These halogen ions have several oxidation states based on existence in their compounds. For example, chlorine has seven oxidation numbers that have values of -1, 0, +1, +3, +4, +5, or +7. When choline presents as free chlorine gas it has a 0 oxidation number; however, the most common oxidation number is -1 when reacts with hydrogen and mono- or divalent metals to produce hydrochloric acid and metal chlorides as shown:


H+ + Cl- HCl

M+ + Cl- MCl

M2+ + Cl- MCl2


In the presence of oxygen, chloride ion can have positive oxidation number, and its value increases with increasing oxygen in the compound according:


The oxidation number of +1: Na+ + ClO- → NaClO

The oxidation number of +3: Na+ + ClO2- NaClO2

The oxidation number of +4: ClO2

The oxidation number of +5: Na+ + ClO3- NaClO3

The oxidation number of +7: Na+ + ClO4NaClO4


In electrochemical cell reaction, these compounds are either oxidized to produce free chlorine gas at the surface of cell anode or reduced to produce chloride ions on cathode according to the reactions shown in Table 6 and Table 7. The values of standard oxidation potential 


Table 6. Standard reduction potential for various chlorinated compounds vs SHE.


Table 7. The standard reduction potential of water vs SHE.


On the surface of the catalytic electrodes chloride ions undergoes adsorption by the surface of the anode as per Figure 1 (Liang et al., 2020). First chloride ions first diffuse to the surface of the electrode and get adsorbed as


Cl‾ Cl*


Then the adsorbed chloride ion undergoes electrochemical oxidation reaction to form chlorine gas as


2Cl- Cl2 + 2e-



Figure 1.    Adsorption/electrochemical reaction of chloride ions and related compounds on the electrode surface.


Depending on solution acidity (Figure 2) chlorine gas evolved from solution at low pH; however, it undergoes oxidation reaction to form HClO which in turn its ions ClO‾ is further undergoes adsorption/electrochemical reactions to form ClO3- and ClO4Some of the produced HClO diffuses back into solution with its base to disproportionate to O3.


Figure 2. Speciation of Chlorine and its species at various pH values (Remucal and Manley 2016)


Kinetics of Electrochemical Reactions of chlorine compounds

While there are many chlorine species exists in the electrochemical cell such as Cl‾, ClO‾, ClO2-, ClO3- , ClO4- , and HClO , and other counter species such as OH‾ and H+, their existence affect the electrochemical reaction to liberate chlorine from solution. The rate of the electrochemical reaction of chloride ions on the surface electrode has therefore regulated the reaction rate between chloride ions and their solution types, as well as the electrical potential gap between electrode surface and solution. Exner et al. (2016) used DFT to study the kinetics reaction of chlorine at aRuO2(110) Model Electrode. They found that Volmer–Heyrovsky mechanism significantly influenced the adsorption of chloride ions on the active oxygen atoms of RuO2 lead to further reaction to liberate chlorine gas from solution. The rate of development of the produced chlorine is linearly proportional with current density. 


Dickinson and Wynne-Jones (Dickinson et al., 2016) studied the rate of chlorine gas formation at the platinum electrode. They proved that the rate is inhibited by the oxide that makes on the electrode surface where the order of reaction was unity at low chlorine concentration. Isai et al. (2013) performed Tafel analysis on chloride ions oxidation on the platinum electrode and showed that the mechanism of the reaction is influenced by the dissociative electrochemical adsorption of chlorine species and chemical recombination of the adsorbed Pt–Cl.


Nicoson et al. (2002) studied the mechanism and the kinetics of the electrochemical reaction of chlorine gas and hypochlorite ions produced in acetate buffer solution. The reaction was first order in [Cl2] and [ClO2-], with a rate constant of k1 = (5.7 ± 0.2) × 105 M-1 s-1 at 25.0 °


Therefore, the target electrochemical reaction of chloride ions on the surface of the electrode is governed by 


O + ne- R


Where O represent the free chlorine in solution, Cl2R is the chloride ions, Cl- in solution, and ne- are the number of electrons transfer in the electrochemical cell.


Some of the produced chlorine can future reacts with oxygen to produce hypochlorous acid (HClO) in solution according to the general equation 




Hypochlorous acid may dissociate on the surface of the electrode to produce hypochlorite ions (ClO‾) as

Y P + H+


Further series reactions on the surface of the electrode such as

ClO‾ → ClO3 → ClO4-


On a planner electrode, the rate of oxidation of chloride ions is related to the rate of change of these ions within a distance, x, from the electrode surface according



In this review, adsorption techniques have been reviewed for the removal of chlorine and chlorinated compounds in water and wastewater, and biodegradation, photochemical, adsorption, chemical, electrochemical, photo-electrochemical, membrane, supercritical extraction and catalytic methods may be used. In addition, types of chlorine species in solution such as chlorine (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypochlorite ion (OCl-), monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), nitrogen- trichloride (NCl3), monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), nitrogen-trichloride (NCl3), and chlorophenol. Numerous industrial usages and production of chlorine and chlorinated compounds has resulted in the discharge of different types of chemicals into the environment and have a serious challenge in the health sectors.

The fate and transport of chlorophenol compounds may lead to an increase in toxicity that may damage DNA or gene products as well as that may mutagenic and carcinogenic for living organisms. The primary processes involving transport, mobility and distribution of these chemicals in the environment at various environmental parameters such as chemical, physical, and biological transformations, sorption, volatilization, degradation, and leaching were discussed. However, further study is necessary to comprehend the mechanisms of reduction of chlorinated compounds, which has electrochemical cell reaction, chlorine compounds are either oxidized to produce free chlorine gas at the surface of cell anode or reduced to produce chloride ions on cathode according to the reactions. Moreover, the kinetics of the electrochemical reaction of chlorine compounds, which has many chlorine species exists in the electrochemical cell such as Cl‾, ClO‾, ClO2-, ClO3- , ClO4- , and HClO and other counter species such as OH- and H+, their existence affect the electrochemical reaction to liberate chlorine from solution.


The scientific research to develop novel technology for solid adsorbent processes, either for the rate of the electrochemical reaction of chloride ions on the surface electrode is controlled the rate of reaction between chloride ions and their species in solution, as well as, the electrical potential difference between electrode surface and solution.



On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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OPEN access freely available online

Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences [ISSN 16851994]

Chiang Mai University, Thailand

Mohammad Al-Hwaiti1, Hamidi Abdul Aziz1, 2,*, Mohd Azmier Ahmad2, 3, and Reyad Al-Shawabkeh4

1 School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

2 Solid Waste Management Cluster, Science and Technology Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

3 School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

4 Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan


Corresponding author: Hamidi Abdul Aziz, E-mail:

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Editor: Wasu Pathom-aree,

Chiang Mai University, Thailand


Article history:

Received: July 27, 2020;

Revised: November 4, 2020;

Accepted: November 25, 2020;

Published online: March 5, 2021